Remote Sensing Across the Great Lakes: Observations, Monitoring and Action

Sessions:

 


Session: Observing Systems and Activities I
Wednesday, April 5th, 2006 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
Eastman Room
Moderator: Frank Kenny, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

10:00 - 10:30 a.m.
Advancements in Digital Camera Technology
Andy Freckmann

EarthData International

Abstract: The purpose of this presentation is to show the latest in large format digital camera sensors. The author will compare digital camera systems, and highlight the pushbroom technology of the Leica ADS40 camera. An overview of the ADS40 will include the acquisition of imagery along with the improvements in data processing procedures and techniques. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion and illustrations of additional benefits gained from digital sensors.

10:30 - 11:00 a.m.
Gliders - An Operational Tool for Sub-Surface Envi
David Porat

Bluefin Robotics

Abstract: The modern glider is a state of the art submersible vehicle that provides the researcher economical access to the myriad physical and biological processes in play beneath the surface of lakes or oceans. Combining the station keeping of a buoy with the flexibility of a powered AUV, the glider can remain in place for six months or more to monitor events throughout the water column. Alternatively, at the behest of the remote researcher via satellite communication, the glider may be directed to re-locate or to track a process for up to 4000 km while continually measuring the water column. This is a key ability that provides the researcher the 3D mapping tools needed for volumetric mapping. Like the space shuttle, the glider is a vehicle in which a research payload can be incorporated. Optical, chemical, electrical and acoustic sensors can measure, collect, process and transmit physical and biological environmental data via satellite to multiple researchers in event timescales. Navigating to location with a combination of dead reckoning and GPS, the 52 kg glider is simple and economical to deploy without beacons or moorings.
This paper will present the unique capabilities of the Spray glider and its role as an operational tool for environmental monitoring.
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11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
A Methodology for Aligning Raster Flow Direction Data with Photogrammetrically Mapped Hydrology
Frank Kenny and Bryce Matthews

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

Abstract:
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11:30 am - Noon
Object-Oriented Classification of Brownfields
Gregory Bacon

SUNY Environmental Science & Forestry

Abstract: The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that there are five hundred thousand to one million brownfield sites in the United States. Brownfields are underutilized properties, the redevelopment or reuse of which is complicated by the presence or potential presence of contamination. Recent federal legislation has increased the availability of redevelopment grants for these sites and has mitigated some of the legal liabilities that can result in costly remediation requirements for owners of contaminated property. Brownfield redevelopment efforts are expected to expand as local governments take advantage of these changes to revitalize communities and enhance local economies. This work applies an object-oriented classification method to high resolution aerial imagery of the city of Syracuse, NY with the intent of identifying brownfield sites during the inventory stage of the redevelopment process.
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Noon - 12:30 p.m.
Nearshore Observing Systems-Community Partnerships
Mark Breederland

Michigan Sea Grant Extension

Abstract: Community partnerships are essential to sustain nearshore observing systems. A real-time environmental monitoring buoy, owned by the Marine Hydrodynamics Lab at The University of Michigan, was launched in West Grand Traverse Bay in July, 2005 to measure wind speed and direction, current speed and direction, wave height and period, as well as air and water temperature. The data is transmitted in ten minute intervals to a land station. Community partnerships are woven throughout this project including facilitation of land station (rooftop antenna mount and static IP address) at the Great Lakes Campus building of Northwestern Michigan College; vessel coordination for buoy anchorage, deployment & retrieval; and ongoing visual monitoring of buoy. Examples of challenges and opportunities for community value added roles are shared along with illustrations of uses of real time data.
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Session: Monitoring Programs I
Wednesday, April 5th, 2006 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
Gleason Room
Moderator: George Leshkevich, NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

10:00 - 10:30 a.m.
Real-time Environmental Coastal Observation Network
Steve Ruberg
NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

Abstract:  RECON buoy and fixed stations have been designed to allow flexible deployment of coastal access points and simplified integration of sensor packages. The system provides continuous observations of chemical, biological, and physical parameters, facilitates modification of sampling parameters in anticipation of episodic events, facilitates collection of field samples in response to episodic events, supports long term research and contributes to sensor and system development. RECON system development relies on wireless broadband technology and a network-based underwater hub designed to allow expansion via satellite nodes. The system architecture allows simplified integration of sensors from various institutions through guest ports. Access to and control of instrumentation is made available to the scientific community and educational institutions through the internet. A real-time database management system provides continuous observations of coastal environmental conditions for use in forecast models, permits identification of perturbations that may signal changes in the ecosystem, and puts current trends into an historical framework.
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10:30 - 11:00 a.m.
A Regional Lake Clarity Assessment Using Landsat
Steve Kloiber

Metropolitan Council

Abstract: Implementing traditional lake monitoring programs over a large, lake-rich region, such as the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota) poses significant logistical and financial challenges. This region has approximately 1,000 lakes greater than 10 acres in surface area. Effective lake management for this region requires long-term water quality information on a broad scale. However, the expense and time requirements of ground-based monitoring make it effectively impossible to adequately monitor more than a small fraction of this resource by conventional field methods. Even making extensive use of volunteer monitoring, only about 15% of the region’s lakes larger than 10 acres are assessed each year. The use of satellite remote sensing is a cost-effective way to develop a comprehensive regional database that can be used to evaluate regional differences and water clarity trends over time. This paper summarizes work on the development of regional-scale, lake water clarity assessment techniques using satellite imagery, with a special focus on Landsat data. A procedure was developed to estimate water clarity using satellite imagery and is now part of a routine lake monitoring program for the Twin Cities. Using this technique, water clarity trends were evaluated for more than 500 lakes over a period 32-year period. This procedure has been subsequently applied to statewide lake water clarity assessments.
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11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
Highlighting Monitoring Efforts and Shortfalls in the Great Lakes Basin
Anne Sturm and Ric Lawson

Great Lakes Commission

Abstract: The Great Lakes Monitoring Inventory and Gap Analysis is the first comprehensive resource of its kind developed to report on monitoring activities in the Great Lakes basin. The core of the project is a comprehensive monitoring inventory of more than 600 Great Lakes monitoring programs with the purpose of creating awareness of, and access to, monitoring program information. The inventory is accessible interactively on the web, with geographic and content-based search functions. Results of the inventory analysis show a wide range of sampling programs distributed across the Great Lakes basin, with a majority operated at the state/provincial level. Using the program inventory and consulting with program managers, the Commission assessed gaps and overlaps in monitoring programs and compiled the results of this analysis in a comprehensive report.
The gap analysis summarizes monitoring efforts in 21 separate areas, reviewing current efforts and highlighting potential gaps in monitoring coverage. For example, in the area of beach monitoring, it was found that the U.S. and Ontario follow different beach advisory and closing standards, and monitoring protocols can vary across jurisdictions, such that results are not directly comparable. The report also includes policy recommendations to address major monitoring gaps and suggest improvement in the effectiveness of monitoring coordination. Findings from the Great Lakes Monitoring Inventory and Gap Analysis are being disseminated to the monitoring community, resource managers, and federal and state legislators. Efforts will be made to integrate the inventory and gap analysis into the Great Lakes Observing System and other monitoring coordination initiatives.
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11:30 am - Noon
Towards a Hydrodynamic and Optical Modeling System with Remote Sensing Feedback
Yan Li

Rochester Institute of Technology

Abstract: A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (ALGE) was applied to Lake Ontario to study the spring-summer thermal structure and circulation pattern.
Local weather conditions and stream flow data were used to drive the model. The simulated water temperature in the lake showed good agreement with remote sensing thermal imagery. With realistic boundary conditions obtained from whole lake simulations, high resolution plume simulations were carried out at the mouth of Niagara River and Genesee River to study the transport and the 3D distribution of CDOM and sediments in the water that were modeled as passive tracers and particles in ALGE. The spectral remote-sensing reflectance at various locations in the mouth of Niagara River and Genesee River was calculated by a 1D radiative transfer model (Hydrolight 4.1). The inputs to Hydrolight were the inherent optical propeties of materials in the water and the concentration of the materials obtained from the hydrodynamic simulation. Calculation of the reflectance spectra (or water-leaving radiance) from Hydrolight at the simulation nodes creates a synthetic image which can be compared to remotely sensed radiance to provide a feedback mechanism to the hydrodynamic model.
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Noon - 12:30 p.m.
Monitoring Ice Conditions in the Great Lakes
Craig Evanego

National Ice Center

Abstract: The accurate analysis and prediction of ice cover in the Great Lakes is vital to the safety of commercial navigation and Coast Guard winter operations in the region. Additionally, a growing number of researchers are interested in using Great Lakes ice conditions as an indicator of regional climate variability and climate change. The North American Ice Service (NAIS), a virtual organization comprised of the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC), the Canadian Ice Service (CIS) and the International Ice Patrol (IIP), produces comprehensive analyses of ice conditions on the Great Lakes twice-weekly. Ice analyses are generated by image analysts using remotely sensed data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and various visible, infrared and near-infrared sensors. Information derived from this remotely sensed data is combined with information from ship reports and, occasionally, airborne reconnaissance to produce the Great Lakes ice analysis. Each analysis includes information on total ice concentration, stage of development (ice thickness), partial concentrations of each stage of development and the size of ice floes within the pack ice. Analyses are made available on the World Wide Web (http://www.natice.noaa.gov or http://ice-glaces.ec.gc.ca) in the form of graphical charts and ArcGIS interchange files.
This presentation will explain the methodology employed by NAIS image analysts, examine some of advantages provided by the various remotely sensed data sources used, and explore future possibilities for improving Great Lakes ice monitoring capabilities.
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Session: Implementation and Management I
Wednesday, April 5th, 2006 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
Fitzhugh Room
Lindi Quackenbush, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

10:00 - 10:30 a.m.
Utilization of Satellite-derived LCLU Information
Bert Guindon

Canada Center for Remote Sensing

Abstract: Over the past 3 years an integrated national urban database, the Canadian Urban Land Use Survey (CUrLUS), has been created with the goal of providing federal decision makers with critical information for effective policy development in the areas of energy use, the environment and human health. The foundation of CUrLUS is land cover /land use (LCLU) information derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper images. This layer, integrated with other national information sources such as demographics, historic land use change and topographic data, is being used to address a broad spectrum of urban sustainability issues. Because of the high concentration of population and major urban centres in southern Ontario, a seamless product of the region has been created that encompasses 6 Landsat scenes and spans the Belleville to Windsor corridor. This paper will illustrate the utilization of southern Ontario CUrLUS products in addressing three sustainability issues. First, the impact of Canadian urban form on transportation energy use is being assessed through the development of synoptic urban travel models. Second, from diverse land use sources, the geospatial character of urban growth over the period 1966-2001 has been quantified. This time series is being used to assess the cost of urbanization in terms of agricultural and eco-sensitive land loss. Finally, with the aid of high-resolution Quickbird satellite data, impervious surface and urban forest cover has been mapped and is being used to study micro-climate impacts (i.e. the urban heat island effect) on air quality. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of plans to extend the CUrLUS concept to provide a seamless view of urbanization across the whole of the southern portion of the Great Lakes watershed.

10:30 - 11:00 a.m.
Using ArcHydro to Model Nonpoint Pollution Impacts
Horace Shaw

SUNY Environmental Science & Forestry

Abstract: Nonpoint pollution impacts from changing land use have become an important issue for local governments with the implementation of EPA's Phase II storm water regulations. As part of the state's South Shore Estuary Reserve program, the NYS Department of State (DOS) has been concerned with the same issue. With DOS sponsorship, SUNY-ESF initiated a project to develop a dynamic nonpoint pollution model to project relative nonpoint pollution impacts at the watershed level. Data for the model include readily available digital elevation models, hydrographic, soils, land use, zoning, topographic maps, and NYS orthophotos. Land cover data developed from satellite imagery is also used. The ArcHydro extension to ArcGIS is used to delineate the watershed, and to develop the database of hydrologic data and the hydrologic network. ArcGIS's model builder is used to implement the model based on the Natural Resource Conservation Service's curve number process and Event Mean Concentration values for various pollutants. The model will estimate not only negative impacts of land use change, but also positive impacts of various mitigation strategies.

11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
Coastal Mapping, Integrated Modeling and Information Management in the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River Study
Roger Gauthier, Connie Hamilton and Pete Zuzek
Great Lakes Commission, Environment Canada and Baird and Associates

The International Joint Commission has concluded a five-year study on potential improvements to managing outflows from Lake Ontario through the St. Lawrence River. This study has engaged a wide array of stakeholders in evaluating alternative outflow regulation scenarios. Much of this analysis is based upon high resolution imagery, bathymetric and topographic LIDAR collection and detailed wetlands mapping throughout the system. Flood and erosion prediction models were generated for key impact areas within the study area and a detailed document management and geospatial data repository was created.
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11:30 am - Noon
Lakeviews: A Brief Introduction
Brad Hill

Environment Canada

Abstract: Lakeviews is an interoperable system of distributed databases linked by Web services and mapping technologies. It serves as a discovery, access, visualization and decision support tool for federal and provincial monitoring activities and priorities such as the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA) and the State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference (SOLEC).
Lakeviews is designed to provide easy access to environmental information using an interactive mapping tool and provides a snapshot of environmental programs provided by Environment Canada and partners.
The application utilizes standards-based open specifications and employs web services to dynamically pull information from distributed sources created by Environment Canada, other government departments, and various partner organizations. Because of the flexibility offered by this design, the application is highly customizable in terms of form, content, and functionality.
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Noon - 12:30 p.m.
Developing a Dynamic and Distributed GIS to Support Coastal Management Along the Great Lakes Coasts of Wisconsin
Dave Hart

University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute

Abstract: Jurisdiction over the protection and management of Great Lakes coastal resources in Wisconsin is distributed among many agencies at various levels of government. Communication and information sharing among these agencies is critical to effective coastal management. Recent breakthroughs in technology allow the development of integrated and interoperable geographic information systems (GIS) that hold great promise to improve multi-jurisdictional coastal resource management. This presentation discusses a recently completed project funded by the NOAA Coastal Services Center to develop a “dynamic and distributed GIS” to support integrated coastal management along the Lake Superior coast of Wisconsin. A dynamic and distributed GIS is one where custodians, whether they be local, regional, state, federal, academic, or non-profit, maintain and provide access to the most current spatial data and multiple remote users can access and integrate data in real-time from multiple sources. The presentation will demonstrate capabilities of the Lake Superior Coastal Mapping Portal (http://maps.aqua.wisc.edu/lscmp), discuss issues associated with the implementation of web mapping services at the local government level, and explore the technical and institutional concerns of integrating interoperable web mapping services to address coastal hazards and smart growth planning along Lake Superior in Wisconsin.
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Session: Observing Systems and Activities II
Wednesday, April 5th, 2006 2:00 – 5:00 pm
Eastman Room
Moderator: Christine Manninen, Great Lakes Commission

2:00 - 2:30 p.m.
A Bio-Optical Algorithm for Determining Color Producing Agent Concentration in the Great Lakes using SeaWiFS and MODIS
Shuchman, Leshkevich, Hatt, Pozdnyakov, Korosov

Altarum Institute

Abstract: In this presentation we discuss the utilization of SeaWiFS and MODIS satellite data to obtain seasonal and interannual time histories of the major water color producing agents (CPAs), chlorophyll (chl), dissolved organic carbon (doc), and suspended minerals (sm) for Lake Michigan and Lake Erie. We first present a validation of the Great Lakes specific algorithm. The obtained time history of the CPA’s spatial and temporal distributions is then compared to environmental observations such as air and water temperature, wind speed and direction and river run-off. Possible changes in spatial and temporal CPA concentrations, along with corresponding climate change scenarios, are proposed. We also discuss the creation of a new hydro-optical model for the application of the algorithm to Lake Erie. The temporal and spatial variability of the Lake’s optical properties are determined using an in-situ dataset of radiometric profiles combined with coincident measured CPA concentrations obtained during the summer of 2005.
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2:30 - 3:00 p.m.
USDA NAIP Imagery
Bill Timmins

GIS Services

Abstract: Imagery provided by the USDA National Agriculture Imagery Program provides a one meter ground sample distance (GSD) with a horizontal accuracy that matches within 3 meters of a reference ortho image providing updated digital ortho photography and a 2 meter GSD image that matches within 10 meters of reference ortho imagery to support USDA programs that require current imagery acquired during the agricultural growing season. The reference ortho imagery is mosaicked DOQs in the Multi-resolution Seamless Image Database (MrSID) format. The tiles cover a 3.75 x 3.75 minute quarter quadrangle and a 360 meter buffer on all four sides rectified to the UTM coordinate system as compressed county mosaics.
GeoExpress selected by the USDA provides image manipulation tools for MrSID or JPEG 2000 imagery as a low cost, high-power, edit-only station. The Tools software provides instantaneous viewing and manipulation locally and/or over networks while maintaining maximum image quality with no noticeable reduction in image quality and instant, seamless, browsing of massive images with no waiting, no tiles, and no proxies and allows for fast transmission of vast amounts of imagery across networks and on the Internet.
The features and functionality of the Tools product will be presented in this presentation.
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3:00 - 3:30 p.m.
The use of in situ, laboratory and airborne measur
Yushan Zhu

Rochester Institute of Technology

Abstract: title:(The use of in situ, laboratory and airborne measurements to estimate the chlorophyll-a concentration in the St. Lawrence River)
Abstract: Images collected by the RIT Modular Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MISI) were combined with field data and laboratory data in order to estimate the chlorophyll-a concentration in the St. Lawrence River. Algorithms developed to estimate ocean Chl concentration utilizing the SeaWiFS and the MODIS sensors are often in appropriate for coastal and inland waters. Inland waters require higher spatial resolution and they are often Case II waters and for which higher spectral resolution can provide improved spectral separability.
MISI is a hyperspectral sensor that collects the spectrum of reflected sunlight in the visible and near infrared across 70 spectral channels with high spatial resolution, making it an ideal data source for Chl concentration estimation in coastal and inland waters. This work explores the nature of the relationship between the Chl concentration and its optical signal. The apparent and inherent optical properties of the river were obtained using in situ and laboratory measurements. A HOBILabs HydroRad-4 Hyperspectral Radiometer was used in situ to obtain downwelling and upwelling irradiance while bbe FluoroProbe 2 was use in situ for algae class analysis. CDOM, particle absorption coefficients were measured in laboratory. The goal of this project is to increase Chl accuracies estimated with remotely sensed data by including a knowledge of algae class analysis with hyperspectral data.
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3:30 - 4:00 p.m.
Building a Web-based GIS Portal for the Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS)
Pete Giencke and Christine Manninen

Great Lakes Commission

Abstract: As part of the Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS), the Great Lakes Commission is developing an advanced, web-based GIS portal to display and disseminate regional-level geospatial data via the Internet.
GLOS is one of 11 Regional Observing Systems (also known as Regional Associations, or RAs) being established as elements of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). As such, it is intended to bring together and simplify access to disparate data sets on such subjects as Great Lakes climate, meteorology, chemistry, geology, biology and human activity, among others.
Using a range of geospatial mapping technologies while utilizing current interoperability standards and service-oriented architecture, these data will be presented via the Internet to allow browsing, querying, and acquisition of otherwise unconnected geospatial data. The portal is intended to provide access to critical real-time and historical data for multiple users, including, among others, resource managers, researchers, homeland security interests, the commercial shipping industry and the recreational boating community.
Through GLOS, this application represents a substantial contribution toward addressing critical communication and information gaps among the various entities involved in Great Lakes research, management, policymaking and use at the local, regional, and international levels.
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4:00 - 4:30 p.m.
Hydrologic Site Characterization Utilizing Large-Scale Multi-temporal, Mutli-spectral Remotely Sensed Imagery
Kent Todd, Frank Kenny and Bryce Matthews

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

Abstract: Under the soon to be legislated Clean Water Act, the Province of Ontario will be systematically conducting water budget analysis and watershed characterization studies across Ontario. Our current 1:10,000/20,000 scale, photogrammetrically derived base mapping, including our hydrology relevant layers, will be the working scale for this analysis. Where potential threats to drinking water sources are identified, more localized watershed-based studies will be made at a larger-scale. In order to support this larger-scale watershed and hydrology analysis, a number of hydrology data gaps need to be addressed. In particular, a number of large-scale hydrologic features have been identified as existing data gaps, including the spatial representation of ephemeral streams, areas of internal drainage (sinks), off-network flow direction, wetlands and anthropogenic features, such as tile drains, municipal drains, and culverts.
This paper will explore mapping and interpretation methods for large-scale hydrologic feature capture using high resolution elevation and multi-temporal and multispectral remote sensing datasets. A demonstration will also be made showing how these interpreted datasets can be further utilized for generating the derivate layers required for detailed watershed and hydrology modelling purposes.
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4:30 - 5:00 p.m.
Update and refinement of terrain elevations in NYS
Ricardo Lopez Torrijos

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

Abstract: The presentation will begin with an overview of the terrain and surface elevation data holdings available in the NYS portion of the GLB, then continue with a recount of current elevation data collection activities aimed at improving and updating this data layer. Details will be presented about innovative data collection partnerships, funding schemes and contracting mechanisms used in the effort to obtain 100% coverage at a level of detail and accuracy that can support all environmental and water resource monitoring, modeling and management needs for all users.
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Session: Monitoring Programs II
Wednesday, April 5th, 2006 2:00 – 5:00 pm
Gleason Room
Moderator: Darryl Murdock, ITT Industries

2:00 - 2:30 p.m.
Fine-scale analysis of water quality on the SE shores of Lake Huron: relevance and approach
E. Todd Howell

Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment

Abstract: The southeast shores of Lake Huron provide an illustration of the importance of spatial scale in the examination of nearshore water quality. Despite beach postings due to elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria and public complaints of algae on the shoreline, levels of phosphorus and indicator bacteria in the nearshore, as determined in recent vessel-based studies, have not been found to be problematic. The shallow slope of the lakebed and high density of small watercourses along the shoreline are conducive to onshore-offshore gradients in water quality. On five occasions in 2005 water quality was mapped over a 5 km reach of Lake Huron shoreline adjacent to the mouth of Eighteen Mile River. Three zonal units were surveyed concurrently to provide coverage from the immediate shoreline to 3-4 km offshore. Extensive field measurements were used to augment the results from lab-based analysis of water quality. This presentation examines the potential for disparity in the interpretation of water quality which may result from differences in scale of survey in the nearshore. The analysis to date indicates appreciable depth-related and location-dependent variability in water quality much of which would be difficult to detect with a conventional vessel-based survey or conventional beach monitoring protocol.
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2:30 - 3:00 p.m.
Hazard Zone Mapping Along Great Lakes Shorelines
Jeff Lovin

Woolpert Inc

Abstract: The USACE-Detroit District is a key cooperator in the “Lake Michigan Potential Damages Study” (LMPDS), which will provide an extensive assessment of potential shoreline damages due to changes in Lake Michigan water levels over the next 50 years. (LMPDS Progress Report 1999) This paper shows the photogrammetric and LiDAR techniques used.
The LiDAR data will be used to support contouring of the shoreline and will compare the shore and top of bluff lines digitized from the aerial photography. The data collected using LiDAR technology can be a timely and economical means for collection of terrain data in comparison to manual methods used directly from aerial photography.
Results:
• An Elevation modeling from 10 meters water depth to 1000m inland from shores' edge that supports 2' contouring of the Lake Michigan shoreline and Berrien County, Michigan
• Baseline info on shore protection, building footprints, top & toe of the bluff, etc. Identification and delineation of shoreline protection structures
• 3D delineation of the bluff-line top of bluff as well as the slope of the shoreline
• Feature map that can be combined with the vertical data to further analyze LMPDS.
Lessons Learned:
• Accurately mapping shoreline protection features such as groins, revetments, rip-rap, seawalls, and jetties is critical to the LMPDS
• LIDAR is a useful tool for providing the vertical data component in these applications
Conclusions:
• Successful mapping project which provides an applicable tool for mapping any detailed work
• A product that will establish a baseline for shoreline modeling in the future and compare what has happened in the past
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3:00 - 3:30 p.m.
Radar Monitoring of the Great Lakes using Low-Cost Radar Networks Developed for Homeland Security
Tim J. Nohara
Sicom Systems Ltd.

Low-cost, high-performance radar sensors and networks have been developed to meet homeland security requirements such as border security, law enforcement and critical infrastructure protection. These systems generate very rich data sets covering wide areas. A modest number of radars can cover an entire Great Lake. The data is readily distributed using an elegant network architecture that can provide real-time or historical data. A wide range of data products can be derived from this data as required. The 24/7 historical database can support Search & Rescue planning with both derived environmental data products and a complete historical picture of vessel movements.
Furthermore, the excellent tracking performance and real-time data distribution capability of these systems makes them a valuable support asset during actual S&R operations.
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3:30 - 4:00 p.m.
Coastal Change Analysis in the Great Lakes
Nate Herold

NOAA Coastal Services Center

Abstract: The NOAA Coastal Services Center (CSC) has been developing a nationally standardized database of land cover and change information, for the coastal zone of the U.S., as part of its Coastal-Change Analysis Program (C-CAP). C-CAP products inventory coastal intertidal areas, wetlands, and adjacent uplands with the goal of monitoring changes in these habitats, on a one-to-five year repeat cycle. These maps are developed utilizing remotely sensed imagery, and can be used to track changes in the landscape through time. An immediate objective for C-CAP is to expeditiously complete its national baseline, to which additional dates of imagery are already being used to track coastal changes through time. The C-CAP effort is conducted in coordination with state coastal management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium and other federal programs. This presentation will review the status of C-CAP’s national baseline; past, current and upcoming initiatives in the great lakes region; as well as the vision for future higher-resolution land cover mapping.
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4:00 - 4:30 p.m.
Remote monitoring of a coastal wetland in LakeErie
Nishanthi Wijekoon

Kent State University

Abstract: Wetlands are critical interfaces between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Old Woman Creek (OWC) Estuary, where non-point source pollution due to total suspended particulates (TSP) is a major concern, is the only National Estuarine Research Reserve in the Great Lakes biogeographic region. In this study, visible and mid infrared reflectance data from Landsat5 TM satellite along global positioning (GPS) system referenced transects were used to calibrate TSP concentrations obtained with a Malvern Mastersizer 2000. We used the algorithm of normalized difference water index (NDWI), which exploits the upwelling electromagnetic radiation from visible and mid infrared regions of dark object subtracted imagery, to assess the TSP concentration of surface water. NDWI was compared with several optical algorithms, which also formulated using Landsat5 TM spectral regions, based on simple linear regression analysis in order to evaluate the capability of quantitative mapping of TSP concentrations in OWC estuary. In addition, we normalized the electromagnetic radiation from near and mid infrared regions and formulated normalized surface wetness index (NSWI) to provide information on land cover based on the wetness of the area. NSWI clearly differentiated open surface water from aquatic and terrestrial vegetation. The study allowed a higher temporal resolution in comparison of calibrated inventories of TSP with environmental and climatic conditions.
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4:30 - 5:00 p.m.
Pesticidal Transgenic Crop Monitoring
John A. Glaser

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, National Risk Mgmt. Lab

Abstract: Current plantings of 25+ million acres of transgenic corn in the United States require a new approach to monitor this important crop for the development of pest resistance. Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated by EPA under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Crops, containing transgenic pesticidal traits, have been recognized by EPA to be “in the public good,” due to their potential to create higher crop yields with fewer insecticide applications. EPA requirements for FIFRA registration of transgenic pesticidal crops include a number of stewardship issues, among which crop monitoring for development of insect pest resistance plays a critical role. Using hyperspectral imagery collected from a camera mounted in a Cessna 210 aircraft; our research has imaged a series of designed corn plantings of known hybrid composition. The ability to distinguish transgenic hybrids from their nearest relative isolines and potentially determine differing levels of pest infestation detection will be discussed. Our evolving monitoring system is designed to provide an early warning of pest resistance development. It is important that crop management practices be adaptive to new threats and unexpected outcomes. The extension of current research into this system will also be discussed. USEPA Office of Research & Development has developed in collaboration with National Aeronautics and Space Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, a research program has focused on a variety of issues important to the improvement of current resistance management practices.

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Session: Implementation and Management II
Wednesday, April 5th, 2006 2:00 – 5:00 pm
Fitzhugh Room
Moderator: Jeff Herter, New York State Department of State, Division of Coastal Resources

2:00 - 2:30 p.m.
Targeting and Evaluating BMP Implementation
Brenda Berasi

AMEC Earth and Environmental

Abstract: The Oklahoma Conservation Commission (OCC) has begun using satellite imagery with water quality modeling to identify potential critical source areas of pollutants. Identification of these source areas aids in implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for targeted Oklahoma watersheds. The study area was the Wister Lake watershed located in southeast Oklahoma and Arkansas. Wister Lake is eutrophic and its watershed has been placed on the Nutrient Limited Watershed (NWL) list, as well as the State’s 303(d) list. An unsupervised classification technique was used to map landcover types in 2000 and 2004 and field data were collected in 2005 to assess the accuracy of the classification. An image differencing process was employed to map, detect, and quantify changes in landcover within the watershed as well as within a riparian buffer zone. The vegetation analysis consisted of a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a normalized difference senescent vegetation index (NDSVI) as well as fractional cover. The overall objectives of this project were: 1) Utilize Landsat TM imagery to map landcover types within the watershed and subsequently use these data as an input to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to estimate pollutant loads; and 2) Use vegetation indices to identify varying pasture grazing intensity from the summer of 2000 through the summer of 2004 to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs implemented through the Section 319 program. This presentation will reveal the results from this remote-sensing and watershed modeling exercise.
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2:30 - 3:00 p.m.
NYSDOT Continuously Operating Reference System (CORS) Past, Present and Future
Ron Frederiks

New York State Department of Transportation

Abstract: The CORS enables positioning accuracies that approach a few centimeters relative to the National Spatial Reference System, both horizontally and vertically. The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is in the process of implementing 36 new CORS stations that are distributed throughout New York State. NYSDOT is collaborating with National Geodetic Survey (NGS) to get the NYSDOT CORS integrated into the national CORS. This presentation will focus on how this system got started, where it is in the implementation phase and with what kind of data this system is envisioned to supply and how this data is expected to be delivered.
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3:00 - 3:30 p.m.
Cooperative Decision Support Technologies for the Northeastern United States: Bridging NASA and USGS Technologies
David Carr

IAGT

Abstract: The Institute for the Application of Geospatial Technologies (IAGT) is investigating the integration of USGS ground monitoring technologies and water resources data with NASA’s Earth Observing System data and systems to enhance and develop decision support tools. Driving the requirements of this project are the specific needs of state and local governments in the Northeastern United States, with particular attention paid to federal mandates driving regulatory workflows across various levels of government. IAGT gathered feedback from stakeholders in fourteen states across the Northeastern U.S. to determine how decision support technologies (DST), USGS and NASA data, and USGS and NASA enabling technologies can be used to support water resource management. IAGT and project co-developers are currently developing an environmental monitoring data network, and are prototyping decision support tools for flooding and water quality program managers.
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3:30 - 4:00 p.m.
A tool for Great Lakes decision support activities
Tom DeFelice or Bob Sherwood

IM Systems Group

Abstract: Understanding, predicting, and responding to the affects of human activities on the environment requires the monitoring and interpretation of available information to provide for the needs of society. Wise use of scientific data resources can support the development of effective strategies for growth planning as well as adapting, mitigating, and responding to change. Thus, effective decision support depends on continued insight from historic, current, and projected information from a wide range of sources.
IMSG has been developing decision support tools that integrate GIS data sets with complex algorithms to support the NOAA Coastal Services Center, the National Marine Protected Areas Center, state and local governments, including the Great Lakes region. Our presentation will summarize selected successes in implementing these tools and the adaptability of this type tool for other coastal great lake regional planning decisions. An integral part of this system is a web-based, tool designed to allow the dynamic analysis and ad-hoc reporting on socio-economic, biological, cultural and other user designated aspects associated with ecosystem monitoring. These tools formalize observational protocols associated with long term ecosystem monitoring strategies as applied to; habitat mapping, land cover/land use change (urban, Ag.), biophysics (carbon, moisture fluxes; yields), and weather/climate impacts. They use multiple data layers (Satellite, airborne, ground based environmental, ecosystem) and are adaptable to accept data from other sources, and tailor interactive interfaces to support a wide range of environmental planning exercises.
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4:00 - 4:30 p.m.
Clean Water Act: Catalyst for Convergence
Ian Parrish

Ministry of the Environment Ontario

Abstract: The Clean Water Act is a new provincial initiative that will require geospatial integration of multi-agency, multi-jurisdictional land-use information. Information will include imagery (Quickbird satellite & orthophotography) to in situ monitoring networks, demographic to geographic, ambient to anthropogenic.
There are many aspects of this endeavour that will be considered:
How do we respect individual privacy while fulfilling freedom of information and need to know program activities?
How do we build a collaborative environment of common information building and usage among multiple agencies and jurisdictions?
Whereas source water protection is the program driver, the nature of the project has significant imapacts on information inputs for decision support systems related to environmental management including planning, approvals, abatement, investigations, permitting and scientific research. The opportunities and challenges are significant.
Ideally, we recognize the value of convergent, geospatially enable and integrated, land use information. Many initiatives have tried to bring this ideal into practise, with limited success. With a significant program driver like the Clean Water Act, the opportunity exists for Ontario to quickly make great process. The presentation will cover the strategic and technical processes to bring this about. The challenges and barriers along with the benefits will be highlighted.
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4:30 - 5:00 p.m.
Applying ASTER Data and Products to Great Lakes Science
G. Bryan Bailey and Michael J. Abrams

U.S. Geological Survey Center of Earth Observation and Science; CIT Jet propulsion Lab

Abstract: The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager on board the EOS Terra spacecraft. Its data and products have broad potential applications in addressing many scientific and practical problems in the Great Lakes region. ASTER acquires 60-km x 60-km images in 14 spectral bands in the visible/near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared with spatial resolutions of 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. It also acquires along-track stereo imagery and is capable of 16-day repeat coverage. The geolocation accuracy of ASTER data is better than 50 m.
ASTER L1 data and higher-level products are routinely available from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) located at the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and from Japan’s Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). ASTER Level 1B data over the U.S. are available at no cost to the user from the LP DAAC DataPool. Higher-level ASTER products include those that describe surface radiance, reflectance, temperature, emissivity, and elevation. Characteristics of ASTER data and the geophysical variables presented in the higher-level products make them particularly suitable for addressing a wide range of earth science problems. This paper examines the characteristics of ASTER data and products, as well as the potential role the data and products may have in addressing scientific and practical problems relevant to the Great Lakes region by presenting examples where ASTER data and products have been applied successfully to similar problems in other parts of the world.
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Session: Observing Systems and Activities III
Thurssday, April 6th, 2006 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
Eastman Room
Moderator: Jon Dettling, Great Lakes Commission

10:00 - 10:30 a.m.
Classifying Coastal Wetlands with CASI Imagery
Robb Macleod

Ducks Unlimited

Abstract: Coastal habitats in the Great Lakes are recognized as critically important ecosystem components that provide multiple social (boating, fishing, bird watching), economic (development, recreation, commercial fishing), and environmental (wildlife habitat and water quality) factors. With an estimated $32.4 million dollars contributed annually to the local economy through waterfowl hunting, sports fishery, and commercial fishery alone, it is extremely important to both protect and enhance this coastal habitat. Yet, over half of the coastal habitat that supports these activities has been lost and many of the remaining habitats have been degraded resulting in poor water quality and invasion by exotic species. The first step in protecting, restoring, and enhancing coastal habitat is to identify the current status and communicate the results to the organizations involved in managing the resource. This project will utilize CASI hyperspectral imagery to classify the coastal wetland habitats in Saginaw Bay, Michigan. The resulting classification will be used to prioritize areas for conservation activities (enhancement, restoration, and protection).
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10:30 - 11:00 a.m.
Land-Cover Characterization and Change Detection Using Multi-temporal
Ross S. Lunetta, Joseph F. Knight, and Jayantha Ediriwickrema, John G. Lyon, and L. Dorsey Worthy

U.S. EPA NERL

Abstract: Land-cover composition and change are important factors that affect ecosystem condition and function. These data are frequently used as a primary data source to generate landscape-based metrics to assess landscape condition. The use of satellite-based remote sensor data has been widely applied to provide a cost-effective means to develop land-cover data over large geographic regions. Past and ongoing efforts for generating land-cover across the United States have been implemented using an interagency consortium to share the substantial costs associated satellite data acquisition, processing and analysis. The first moderate resolution National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set was developed for the conterminous United States using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery collected between1991-1992. Currently, the NLCD-2001 is under development for all 50 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Although the NLCD 2001 will provide the most current landcover available, the required development time will result in five-to-nine year offset between data collection and product availability. Ideally, LC products supported by annual updates would provide the user community with a current product to support ongoing environmental assessment and policy decisions. To best achieve this goal in a cost-effective manner, one possible approach would be to identify alteration areas occurring subsequent to 2001 to provide the means for identifying change areas (alarm products) and support the development of appended land-covert products. Both land-cover classification and change detection methods were developed using an NDVI time series database assembled for the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin (APB) pilot area. APB change detection was implemented using an automated multi-temporal data analysis approach. NDVI data collected from NASA’s MODIS sensor were subset to the APB study boundary and resembled into a 250 x 250 m grid database in an Alberts Equal-Area Conic projection. Separate image and data stacks were developed for both the 16-day NDVI data and quality ranking Meta data. The NDVI stack was filtered using the quality information data to remove “corrupted” data values. The filtered data were transformed using a Fourier transformation into frequency domain and corrupted data points estimated using a nonlinear deconvolution approach to provide a complete (n=23) NDVI data
stack for each study year (2000-2005). Agricultural areas were subset using the USDA agricultural survey data (2002) for independent analysis to minimize change commission errors. Total NDVI values were then calculated for each year and analyzed using a 2-year moving window to identify significant annual deviations. Accuracy assessment results performed for the APB indicated that both the land-cover classification (73-89%) and change detection (88%) methods are quite robust. The variable accuracy associated with the classification of cover types was related to the pixel purity (homogeneity) and the sub-pixel sensitivity of change detection was estimated at 1.5 hectares.
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11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
Remote Sensing of Lake Ontario Rochester Embayment
Rolando Raqueno

Rochester Institute of Technology

Abstract: The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory of RIT has been conducting remote sensing research of the Lake Ontario Rochester Embayment region since its inception in 1985. This presentation will detail the history of the lab's different remote sensing activities targetting this region and how these early studies led to the current direction of activities employing airborne hyperspectral instruments and their analysis using physics-based numerical models to map water quality parameters. A case study of collection campaigns (airborne and ground measurements) conducted in 1999 and 2004 will be presented to show how these efforts are leading to the development of model-based technologies for atmospheric compensation, determination of inherent optical properties of in-water constituents, and complex littoral scene and radiative transfer modeling. These techniques address the limitations of algorithms developed for oceanic conditions and model complex factors present in inland water. Inherent to the use of model-based analysis is the need for good estimates of input parameters from monitoring stations, measurements campaigns, and existing databases.
The presentation will conclude with a list of recommendations, based on lessons learned from these different activities, with regard to the type of data of additional measurements that need to be monitored in order to maximize the utility of these systems by increasing the accuracy of the quantities measured through remote sensing.
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11:30 am - Noon
Phragmites Mapping Using Hyperion Imagery
Carol Johnston and Bruce Pengra

South Dakota State University

Abstract: Phragmites australis is an invasive species of special concern in the wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes. We tested the applicability of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery to remote sensing of Phragmites in wetlands of the west coast of Green Bay. Using a target detection approach and the Spectral Correlation Mapper, we created a two-class thematic map which was validated with field data. Three of the purest Phragmites reference samples, based on preliminary field reconnaissance, were selected from the September 2004 image to use as training data. The Spectral Correlation Mapper algorithm (SCM) was used to create a continuous value raster with values ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 represented the greatest similarity between the reference spectrum and the image spectrum, and 1 the least similarity. The final two-class thematic classification predicted monodominant Phragmites covering 3.4% of the study area. Most of this was concentrated in long linear features parallel to the Green Bay shoreline, particularly in areas that had been under water only six years earlier when lake levels were 66 cm higher. An error matrix using spring 2005 reference points (n=129) showed good overall accuracy—81.4%. The small size and linear arrangement of Phragmites stands was less than optimal relative to the sensor resolution, and Hyperion’s 30 meter resolution captured few if any pure pixels. However, reasonably accurate, contemporary Phragmites maps prepared with Hyperion imagery would provide wetland managers with a tool that they currently lack, which could aid attempts to stem the spread of this invasive species.
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Noon - 12:30 p.m.
Object-oriented land cover classification
Erik Nordman

SUNY Environmental Science & Forestry

Abstract: A high-resolution land cover data set of the Carmans River basin (Suffolk County, NY) was required for use in both a hydrologic model of non-point source water pollution and an economic model of open space. QuickBird satellite imagery (2.44 m multispectral) of the region was acquired in May and June 2005. eCognition object-oriented classification software was used to segment and classify the image. In addition to the four spectral bands, an NDVI image layer and road, wetland and water thematic layers were used in the two-level segmentation process. The original 15 classes were aggregated in a final image consisting of eight classes: impervious, grass/herbaceous, tree, woody wetland, emergent wetland, tidal wetland, bare, and water. The overall accuracy of the classified image was assessed at 73.9% using a stratified random sample with 727 points. Digital orthophotos (1 ft. natural color) served as reference data. User accuracies for the three dominant classes, impervious, grass and tree, were 73.4%, 68.4%, and 74.5%, respectively. Though they may seem low, these accuracy estimates are consistent with other attempts at land cover classification with high-resolution satellite imagery. The final product is suitable for both the hydrologic and economic models.
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Session: Monitoring Programs III
Thursday, April 6th, 2006 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
Gleason Room
Moderator: Mike Robertson, Land Information Ontario

10:00 - 10:30 a.m.
Ten State Mid-Atlantic Cropland Data Layer Project
Rick Mueller

USDA NASS

Abstract: This project covered ten states over the Mid-Atlantic region, mapping the agricultural extent of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and produced an inventory of the major crops grown in each of the states for the 2002 crop season. Major crops such as corn, soybeans, cotton, tobacco, winter wheat, double-cropping practices (winter wheat followed by soybeans), and other crops are included for Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia and West Virginia.
The traditional NASS methodology used in the Midwest and Delta States of pixel-based clustering and classification was applied to develop the product. Eighty Landsat TM and ETM scenes were processed, and ground truth information was utilized from both the 2002 NASS June Agricultural Survey (JAS) and Agriculture Coverage Evaluation Survey (ACES). The NASS Area Sampling Frame, using a stratified random sampling method, included over 1,360 square miles of sample segments, over the extent of the study area. These training sites were used as input to the classifier. In addition, extra signatures were obtained for training areas not covered by the Surveys, conforming to Anderson Level II classification specifications. Ortho-rectified categorized images and accuracy assessment results were published for the ten-state project.
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10:30 - 11:00 a.m.
Mapping Mine Wastes in the Vicinity of A Spawning Reef in Lake Superior
Esteban Chiriboga

Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission

Abstract: Extensive copper mining throughout the Keweenaw peninsula of Michigan resulted in the deposition of approximately half a billion tons of mine waste directly into Lake Superior and its tributaries. These mine wastes, referred to as stamp sands, contain trace metals of sulfide bearing ore that leaches into streams and lakes. The high concentrations of contaminants related to these stamp sands are above toxicity thresholds for many animal and plant species.
Anecdotal evidence from tribal fishermen suggests that the stamp sands are moving toward Buffalo Reef. Buffalo reef is located in the Michigan waters of Lake Superior within the Keweenaw Bay and provides critical spawning habitat for Lake Superior whitefish and lake trout.
GLIFWC in collaboration with The National Water Research Institute (NWRI) of Environment Canada used an acoustic seabed classification system to map the boundaries of the suitable habitat of the Buffalo Reef spawning area as well of the extent to which stamp sands have advanced into Lake Superior. GLIFWC also conducted expanded spawning assessments to confirm the distribution and pattern of use of Buffalo Reef by spawning lake trout and whitefish.
The spatial relationship between important spawning sites and areas contaminated by stamp sands were mapped in a GIS environment. The data will be used by fishery managers to evaluate whether the reef is currently impacted by the stamp sands and to provide a baseline for future monitoring.
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11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
Land Information Ontario: A collaborative approach to remote sensing acquisition and use.
Mike Robertson

Land Information Ontario - OMNR

Abstract: Like many jurisdictions, land information holdings in Ontario are not widely documented, publicized or accessible; compiled in various formats and media; non-standardized; difficult to integrate, share and maintain; and, become quickly obsolete. Land Information Ontario (LIO), in conjunction with the Canadian Geo-Spatial Data Initiative (CGDI) Project, has created an infrastructure that will support the development of partnerships in the collection, management and distribution of Ontario’s land information assets. The Ontario Land Information Infrastructure (OLII) has two major thrusts: ensuring the existence of certain important data sets, and ensuring access to, and widespread general use of, geospatial data. Self-sustaining, well managed, good quality, important data sets are created through a wide variety of cross-jurisdictional projects and policy initiatives. This discussion reviews the objectives, the history and the reality of Land Information Ontario and its role among the users and managers of geospatial data in Ontario. It focuses specifically on how organizations using Ontario geographic information can, and have already participated in LIO’s programs and offerings. One of the main goals is to implement a collaborative approach to spatial data in the province through the development of data sharing opportunities that will benefit a wide variety of organizations. Remote Sensing is now becoming essential for land use planning and other geospatial activities. The cost of acquisition, licencing and ownership rights along with the ability of organizations to use those data tend to impede and restrict public sector organizations becoming collaborative partners in the collection of high resolution image data. Through data sharing, development of data standards and adoption of collaborative approaches to data collection and management significant benefits can be realized amongst both private and public sector organizations. Those who are interested in Ontario geospatial data will have the opportunity to discover how LIO is developing and fostering relationships and how remote sensing is being acquired through a cost sharing relationship across all levels of government.
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11:30 am - Noon
The BEC Great Lakes Monitoring Inventory
Brad Hill

Environment Canada

Abstract: In the fall of 2004, the Binational Executive Committee (BEC) unveiled their Great Lakes Monitoring Inventory as a first step towards implementing a long-term Information Management Strategy for monitoring programs in the Great Lakes Basin. Since then, over 1000 programs have been added to the Inventory and plans are now under way to integrate this system with the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Research Inventory coordinated by the Council of Great Lakes Research Managers. This presentation will focus on the development, current status, and future plans of the BEC Great Lakes Monitoring Inventory.
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Noon - 12:30 p.m.
Environmental Monitoring of the Great Lakes Using CoastWatch Data and JAVA GIS
G.A. Leshkevich and S. Liu

NOAA/ Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

Abstract: CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) functions as the Great Lakes regional node. In this capacity, GLERL obtains, produces, and delivers environmental data and products for near real-time observation of the Great Lakes to support environmental science, decision making, and supporting research. This is achieved by providing Internet access to near real-time and retrospective satellite observations, in-situ Great Lakes data, and derived products to Federal, state, and local agencies, academic institutions, and the public via the Great Lakes CoastWatch web site (http://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov). The goals and objectives of the CoastWatch Great Lakes Program directly support NOAA’s statutory responsibilities in estuarine and marine science, living marine resource protection, and ecosystem monitoring and management. Great Lakes CoastWatch data are used in a variety of ways including monitoring of algal blooms, plumes, ice cover, water temperatures, two and three dimensional modeling of Great Lakes physical parameters (such as wave height and currents), damage assessment modeling, research, and for educational and recreational activities. New utilities such as JAVA based interactive retrieval of physical parameters such as surface temperature, ice cover, winds, and bottom depth at a given location enhance the accessibility and utility of Great Lakes CoastWatch data. Plans include enhancing the present product suite with image products from satellite sensors such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and ocean color sensors.
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Session: Law Enforcement and Security
Thursday, April 6th, 2006 10:00 am – 12:30 pm
Fitzhugh Room
Ed Freeborn, National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center - Northeast

10:00 - 10:30 a.m.
Use of Real-Time Environmental Information for Coast Guard Operations
Chris Turner

US Coast Guard Research and Development Center

Abstract: Coast Guard mission planners, especially Search and Rescue (SAR) controllers, and operations center staff need a variety of accurate environmental data (winds, currents, sea state, visibility, etc.) to effectively conduct various Coast Guard missions. Search and Rescue missions in particular have an acute need for this information to predict search object drift, and to estimate victim survival times and the effectiveness of search units. SAR planners use a range of existing sources of environmental data for coastal and open ocean searches. For offshore searches, planners use monthly current maps, global model products provided by the U.S. Navy, or geographically specific models for areas such as the Great Lakes. The menu of environmental data sets available for coastal SAR cases is more limited. SAR planners rely on NOAA tidal predictions, which are primarily for inlets along the coast and major estuaries and harbors, or use Datum Marker Buoys (DMBs).
New products have emerged on the Internet during the past several years that seem to offer significant improvements in time and space resolution of coastal and open ocean conditions. At the same time, the Coast Guard has developed a new operational planning SAR planning tool (SAROPS) that can take advantage of high spatial resolution data sets of ocean properties to assist in search planning. SAROPS has been designed to take in the 2-D nowcast and forecast wind and current fields at high resolution and additional types of data (sea and air temperature, visibility, sea height, etc.) that are available from these new sources.
The Coast Guard Research and Development Center in Groton, CT was recently assigned the task of evaluating which of the new model and observation products available for the Coast Guard operating areas including the Great Lakes should be incorporated into the SAROPS system. This somewhat unique study has created a nationwide inventory of observational and model products that provide environmental information on a real-time basis. The R&D Center and its consultants were also tasked with constructing a hierarchy of products for each area that was based on factors affecting their usability such as resolution, accuracy, and product quality, based on documentation of quality control practices, and product validation.
This presentation will provide an overview of how the Coast Guard’s use of real-time environmental information is evolving. It will present a preliminary version of the real-time environmental model and data product catalog and describe how systems were ranked in the catalog. These results made from an information user’s point of view should be of interest to activities that operate or fund data collection and modeling efforts.
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10:30 - 11:00 a.m.
Maritime Domain Awareness: Technology Enablers
Commander James B. Robbins

Maritime Domain Awareness Program Integration Office; U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters

Abstract: This Breakout Session extends CDR Robbins’ Plenary Session remarks by providing greater detail regarding policy, program and technology efforts aimed at improving MDA.
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11:00 - 11:30 a.m.
Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing in relation to InfraGard.
George Davis and Joseph Concannon

NYC Metro InfraGard Alliance

Abstract: InfraGard is a Federal Bureau of Investigation program dedicated to promoting information sharing and dialog between the public and private sectors concerning critical infrastructure issues.

A Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing Advisory Board is now forming and we invite your membership to join the ranks of InfraGard for free membership information please visit www.nym-infragard.us although we encourage membership, it is not required to take part in the workshops or other public InfraGard events.

The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing for critical infrastructure protection, disaster preparedness and emergency response has taken on a much more significant role in the years following the attack on the World Trade Center on 9/11/2001. But there is still a need for the multitude of agencies involved and the private sector to have a secure method of creating, distributing and disseminating the many disparate data sets involved in a major event be it a drill or an actual emergency. The need for a response team that is in-place, secured and capable of responding to disasters, both natural and man made is a part of the mission of the NY Metro InfraGard Alliance. Our presentation will focus on how we are forming a group of GIS professionals within the secure environment of InfraGard.


11:30 am - 12:30 pm
The Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway Maritime Security Operations Center (GLSLS MSOC)
Sgt. Todd Gilmore

GLSLS MSOC

Abstract: Canada has recently created Marine Security Operations Centers (MSOC) on the east coast in Halifax, the west coast in Esquimaux,and on the Great Lakes / St. Lawrence Seaway (GLSLS) in the Niagara region. The MSOC is a joint facility composed of five core partners involved in marine security including the Canadian Coast Guard, Canadian Border Security Agency, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Ministry of National Defence and Transport Canada. Participation is also anticipated from the USCG and the USBP.

The MSOC provides a single secure location where the representatives from those agencies can collect, share and assess information regarding potential threats to maritime security and enhance their common awareness of any situation.

These centres will be the focal points for the collection, analysis, fusion and exchange of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information (ISR) in support of domestic marine security issues. The coordinated fusion of all source ISR data derived from the complete spectrum of government and other maritime offices is critical to the establishment of a 'common operating picture' within our waters and is a centerpiece of the MSOC mission. Lacking this capability, vessel traffic within Canadian waters will continue to pose a risk to both domestic and continental maritime security

Whereas the east and west coast MSOCs are led by the Canadian Navy, the Great Lakes MSOC will be led by the RCMP. Our speaker will be Sgt. Todd Gilmore, NCO in charge of the GLSLS MSOC.

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